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Pronouns

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6.0 pronouns

Pronouns are the simplest of NPs in that they take neither determiners nor adjective modifiers.  Pronouns in ámman îar are divided into personal, possessive, demonstrative, and impersonal pronouns.  These have a morphemic structure similar to that of the nouns defined or replaced by them and appear in complementary distribution with full noun phrases.

The absence of reflexive pronouns.  Reflexivity is indicated by a lexical verb inflection that does not require an anaphoric pronoun.

 

6.0 Pronouns
        6.1 Personal Pronouns
        6.2  Demonstrative Pronouns
                6.2.1 Spatial Deictic
                        6.2.1.1 Spatial Indefinite
                        6.2.1.2 Spatial Distal
                        6.2.1.3 Spatial Proximal
                6.2.2 Temporal Deictics
                        6.2.2.1 Temporal Indefinite
                        6.2.2.2 Temporal Distal
                        6.2.2.3 Temporal Proximal
        6.3 Impersonal Pronoun
        6.4 Pronoun Core Cases
                6.4.1  Speech-Act Participants
                        6.4.1.1 Nominative
                        6.4.1.2 Accusative
                6.4.2 Non-Speech-Act Participants
                        6.4.2.1 Ergative
                        6.4.2.2 Accusative
                        6.4.2.3 Nominative/Absolutive
        6.5 Pronoun Oblique Cases
        6.6 Pronoun Locative Cases

 

6.1 personal pronouns 

The ámman îar pronouns are inflected for person (1st, 2nd, and 3rd), and number (singular and plural).  Pronouns also have derived gender forms (masculine, feminine, and epicene) as in the following table.  Note that as with nouns, gender markings are derivational rather then inflectional and are included here for completeness only.

person class singular plural
1st person masculine  ner(an) I nirain we
feminine ner(iel) niril
epicene ner nir
2nd person masculine deran you dirain you
feminine deriel diril
epicene der dir
3rd person masculine alan he elain they
  feminine aliel she elil
  epicene al he/she/it el

Stressed forms of the personal pronouns are formed by prefixing the identifiable definite determiner.  

el erlinel életh
They sang

al   -0    [-i]  erlinel eleth.
3PER :EPIC :PLUR              .
they             sing    did  .

but to signal contrastiveness

inel erlinel életh 
THEY (as opposed to someone else) sang.

in-    al   -0    [-i]  erlinel eleth.
IDDEF: 3PER :EPIC :PLUR              .
(the)  they             sing    did  .

6.2 demonstrative pronouns

When demonstratives are used alone without a noun head, they are considered demonstrative pronouns.  ámman îar demonstratives pronouns are formed on a paradigm identical to that used for demonstrative determiners, i.e. they represent both spatial and temporal deixis as well as anaphoric reference and they are divided into three degrees:

  1. those of the 1st degree (Proximal) which indicate proximity to the speaker;

  2. those of the 2nd degree (Distal) which indicate distance from the speaker; and 

  3. those of the 3rd degree (Indefinite) which indicate an indefinite or unknown location. 

Demonstrative pronouns can be used only when their coefficients are not textually present.  Otherwise, the demonstrative determiners must be used.  Thus,

derda ristel limîarth 
I want that knife.

(elieth en ner) derda ristel loimiarth.
                DIST:                 .
(do        I  ) that  knife  want     .

but

derdain limîarth 
I want that.

(elieth en ner) derda in  loimiarth.
                DIST: :ACC          .
(do        I  ) that       want     .

6.2.1 spatial deictic demonstrative pronouns

ámman îar spatial deictic demonstrative Pronouns locate entities in space and are divided into three degrees:

  1. those of the 1st degree (Proximal) which indicate proximity to the speaker;

  2. those of the 2nd degree (Distal) which indicate distance from the speaker; and 

  3. those of the 3rd degree (Indefinite) which indicate an indefinite or unknown location. 

  semantics singular plural example
indefinite indefinite or unknown location merda miraid that, those
distal definite location, distant from speaker derda diraid that, those
proximal definite location, near speaker nerda niraid this, these

6.2.1.1 indefinite spatial deictic demonstrative pronoun

en merda ornetarth 
that  is lost.

(elieth) en merda ornetarth.
            INDEF          .
(is    )    that  lost     .

6.2.1.2 distal spatial deictic demonstrative pronoun

derda orneth fas 
that (there) is old.

derda orneth fas.
DIST            .
that  old    is .

6.2.1.3 proximal spatial demonstrative pronoun

nerda sin fas 
this is new.

nerda sein fas.
PROX          .
this  new  is .

6.2.2 temporal deictic demonstrative pronouns

ámman îar temporal deictic Pronouns locate entities in time and are divided into those of the 1st degree (Proximal) which indicate proximity to the present, those of the 2nd degree (Distal) which indicate distance from the present in either the past or the future and those of the 3rd degree (Indefinite) which indicate an indefinite or unknown temporal location.

  semantics singular plural example
indefinite indefinite or unknown time merla mirla that, those
distal definite location, distant from speaker derla dirla that, those
proximal definite location, near speaker nerla nirla this, these

 

  6.2.2.1 indefinite temporal deictic demonstrative pronoun

6.2.2.2 distal temporal deictic demonstrative pronoun 

6.2.2.3 proximal temporal deictic demonstrative pronoun   

6.3 the impersonal pronoun

The impersonal pronoun mir can be translated 'one,' 'everyone', 'people', or even you and is used for non-specific or indefinite referents.

elharivas en oma mir iluvatarren mellîarth 
everyone loves Iluvatar.

elharivas en oma   mir   iluvatarren melliarth.
                   IMPER                      .
does         every one   Iluvatar    love     .
ûelharivas emmir curinarren nausenîarth 
you cant trust a wizard.

uelharivas en mir    curinarren nauseniarth.
              IMPERS                       .
cannot        one    wizards       trust   .

6.4 pronoun core cases

Pronouns are subject to a split-case morphology because of animacy considerations.  A NP is considered higher in animacy if it is to the left on the following continuum.

  1st person  2nd person      demonstratives        proper  common.
  pronouns    pronouns    3rd person pronouns   nouns     nouns  .

Since it is most natural to mark a participant when it is in an unaccustomed role, ámman îar uses case markings to indicate an A-function argument of low animacy or a P-function argument of high animacy. 

function 1st & 2nd person pronouns 3rd person pronouns & demonstratives nouns
  inflection case inflection case inflection case
A - nom -e erg -e erg
S - nom - nom/abs - abs
P -in acc -in acc - abs

Unmarked pronouns are represented by the prototypically high animacy speech-act participants (1st and 2nd person pronouns) in A-function using the zero-morph nominative case.  Exceptions to these prototypes are marked forms.  Thus the accusative case (-in) is used to mark low animacy speech-act participants, 3rd person pronouns and demonstratives in P-function and the ergative case (-on) is used to mark high-animacy 3rd person pronouns and demonstratives in A-function.  The S-function argument of an intransitive predicate is always unmarked. 

6.4.1 speech-act participants

1st and 2nd person pronouns, the speech act participants, are inflected according to an accusative paradigm.

1st and 2nd person pronouns

case

inflection class singular plural semantics

nominative

- masculine neran niran I/we [A/S]
feminine neriel niriel
epicene ner nir
masculine deran diran you [A/S]
feminine deriel diriel
epicene der dir

accusative

-in masculine neranin niranin I/we [P]
feminine nerielin nirielin
epicene nerin nirin
masculine deranin diranin you [P]
feminine derielin dirielin
epicene derin dirin

Note that speech act pronouns in accusative case do not geminate, Thus ner+in > nerin, not *nerrin

 

6.4.1.1 nominative

The Nominative case is used for 1st person pronouns in S-function to an intransitive predicate.

en derîel murmarth 
she is sleeping.

(elieth) en deriel -0   murmarth. 
            S      :NOM         . 
(is    )    she         sleeping.

and in A-function to a transitive  predicate.

derîel eliras am mastmar ervathon 
She is eating soup.

deriel 0   eliras am mastmear ervathon.
A      :NOM                            .
she         is        soup     eating  .

6.4.1.2 accusative

The Accusative case is used for 1st person pronouns in P-function to a transitive predicate.

i rîellisse életh an alanin erthendelon 
The girl kissed him.

i riellisse eleth an alan in    erthendelon.
                     P    :ACCUS            .
the girl    did      him         kiss       .

  6.4.2 non-speech act pronoun cases

3rd person and demonstrative pronouns, non-speech act participants, are inflected according to a tripartite system (see Animacy section of Preliminary Concepts chapter for an explanation of this seeming anomaly.

3rd person pronouns

case

inflection class singular plural semantics

ergative

-e masculine alanne elanne he/they [A]
feminine alielle elielle she/they [A]
epicene alle elle he/she/it/they [A]

nominative/
absolutive

- masculine alan elan he/they [S]
feminine aliel eliel she/they [S]
epicene al el he/she/it/they [S]

accusative

-in masculine alannin elannin he/they [P]
feminine aliellin eliellin she/they [P]
epicene allin ellin he/she/it/they [P]

 

Note that unlike the speech act pronouns, the non-speech act pronouns do geminate in both the ergative and accusative cases.  Thus al+e > alle, not *ale

 


demonstratives

case

inflection singular plural semantics

ergative

-e aladhe elaidhe that [A]

nominative/
absolutive

- alad elaid that [S]

accusative

-in aladhin elaidhin that [P]

  6.4.2.1 ergative

The Ergative case is used for non-speech act pronouns in A-function to a transitive predicate.

alîelle életh an nerin erthendelon 
She kissed me.

alîel e    eleth an nerin erthendelon.
A     :ERG                            .
she         did      me    kiss       .

6.4.2.2 accusative

The Accusative case is used for non-speech act pronouns in P-function to a transitive predicate.

ir adanisse eliras an allin ervathon 
The boy is eating it.

ir  adanisse eliras an al in    ervathon.
                       P  :ACCUS         .
the boy      is        it        eating  .

6.4.2.3 nominative/absolutive

The Nominative/Absolutive case is used for non-speech act pronouns in S-function to an intransitive predicate.

en alîel murmarth 
She  is sleeping.

(elieth) en alîel 0         murarth .
            S     :NOM/ABSOL         .
(is    )    She              sleeping.

 

It is a matter of some debate among scholars who have studied ámman îar as to whether non-speech act pronouns and demonstratives in S-function take a zero-morph nominative inflection or a zero-morph absolutive inflection or some zero-morph hybrid case.

 

6.5 oblique pronoun cases

All oblique case pronouns, regardless of person, like the nouns that they replace, take adverbial position and the same oblique inflections.

ner, 1 person pronoun

case

inflection singular plural semantics

dative

-en neren niren me/us

instrumental

-os neros niros with me/us

genitive

-ion nerion nirion my/our

abessive

-ul nerul nirul without me/us

 6.6 locative pronoun cases

Similarly, all pronouns take the same locative case inflections as the nouns that they replace.

ner. 1st person        

case

inflection singular plural semantics

illative

-al neral niral into me/us

allative

-ial nerial nirial toward me/us

inessive

-ar nerar nirar in me/us

adessive

-iar neriar niriar at me/us

elative

-an neran niran out of me/us

ablative

-ian nerian nirian from me/us

comitative

-as neras niras with me/us