The Pages of The Gray Wizard



3.1 number

ámman îar distinguishes three numbers, singular (-), plural (-[i]), and class plural (-[h]oth)

  inflectional example
singular - narid person
plural -[i] nerid people
class plural -(h)oth nardhoth a people

3.1.1 singular

The singular form of the noun is unmarked.

The beautiful woman came with Galdor.
ir anariel vemarlis erdullel i galdrannas eleth
(anallair amalis iltulith athcalatra)
ir  anariel               vemarlis            erdullel             
i   anar  -0    =iel -0   ve-    marliso      er-  tullo -e   -l   
the Anar- -sing =fem -[S] descr- be.beautiful do-  come  -agt -actn
det nam   -num  =gnd -abs adj-   v            agt- v     -val -vc  
the Anariel               beautiful           come                 

i   galdrannas         eleth            
i   galad =an   -as    el-        -eth  
the galad =masc -with  assertive- -past 
det nam   =gnd  -comit mood-      -tense
the with.Galdor        did              

3.1.2 plural

The protolanguage, vulánayal, had a plural ending -i. This ending tended to cause the root vowels in the word to which it was attached to shift towards i, i.e. toward the high and front vowels, a form of vowel assimilation called umlaut. The plural suffix eventually fell away leaving the umlauted vowels as the only plural indicator. The following shifts occur:

plural example singular
plural example
i i tincar/tincair i i amil/emil
e i beleg/bilig e i anthel/enthil
æ e chærris/cherris æ e tindær/tinder
u i ulcûen/ilcûin u ûi autun/utûin
o e dorris/derris o öi amon/emöin
a e adar/edair a ai ascan/escain
ai e faindir/fendir ai e lindhair/lindher
au u gauron/guröin au u cumgaur/cimgur
The unhappy women came with Galdor.
in nerdhiel vurvalin erdullel i galdrannas eleth
(athlairi arophalin iltulith ascalatra)
in       nerdhiel              vurvalin            
i   -i   narid  -i   =iel -0   ve-    ur-  valno   
the -plu person -plu =fem -[S] descr- not- be happy
det -num n      -num =gnd -abs adj-   neg- v       
the      women                 unhappy             

erdullel              i   galdrannas         eleth            
er-  tullo -e   -l    i   galad =an   -as    el-        -eth  
do-  come  -agt -actn the galad =masc -with  assertive- -past 
agt- v     -val -vc   det nam   =gnd  -comit mood-      -tense
come                  the with.Galdor        did              

The plural is redundantly marked on the definite determiner (in) and the noun stem (-i). (See Definite Determiner below)



3.1.3 class plural

Beside the normal plural, ámman îar also has a collective plural called the class plural. The suffix -(h)oth is used as a group plural, embracing all things of the same name, or those associated in some special arrangement or organization. So nardhoth, means People (as a race) This form is used to make generic reference to an entire class.

Tigers are dangerous animals.
taisothe levain voresadh
(taisiri ne lavnai elesatho)
taisothe              levain           voresadh             
tais  -hoth      -e   lavan  -i   -0   ve-    or=    resadho
tiger -class.plu -[A] animal -plu -[P] descr- compl= be safe
n     -num       -erg n      -num -abs adj-   pfx=   v      
tigers                animals          dangerous            

Class plurals may be "inverted" using the prefix -min' (one), thus min'harithoth = a harithoth, a person of the harith clan.