The Pages of The Gray Wizard



12.0 postpositions (adhedbith)

Because of the rich set of locative cases available, most prepositional concepts can be expressed using the these cases only. For this reason, pure prepositional phrases are rare in ámman îar. However, postpositions may be used to extend or clarify the case expressions.

12.0 Postpositions
        12.1 Postpositional Classes
                12.1.1 Directionals
                12.1.2 Spatials
                12.1.3 Temporals
                12.1.4 Associatives
                12.1.5 Instrumentals

12.1 postpositional classes

There are five classes of postpositions in ámman îar. Each class is based on a postpositional suffix and each class requires a specific case for the noun used in the postpositional phrase.

class suffix example case
direction -ûi

from hoûi
over orûi

spatial -da above amda
among atha
temporal -la after adhla
during ala
associative -îe

against danîe
for (on behalf of) anîe

instrumental -ma for (as a means of) arma
with nama

12.1.1 directional postpositions

Most directionals can be expressed using the locative cases only, making these postpositions rare. They tend to be used only to emphasize the direction specified by the locative case and therefore tend to take sentential stress.  The head noun of a postpositional phrase using a directional postposition must take the ablative case.

i londasîan voronnîon hoûi
FROM Port Voron
(as opposed to "TO Port Voron")

i londas -ian   voronnion ho -ûi       .
         :ABLAT              :DIRECTION.
Port      from  of Voron  from         .

12.1.2 spatial postpositions

These are the most common of the postpositions because they serve to specify the spatial position of the head noun to a degree not possible using the locative cases alone. The head noun of a postpositional phrase using a spatial postposition must take the adessive case.

i balgîar amda
above the table

i   palag -iar   am -da     .
          :ADESS    :SPATIAL.
The table at     above      .

12.1.3 temporal postpositions

Temporal postpositions locate the head noun in time. The head noun of a postpositional phrase using a temporal postposition must take the dative case.

i linnarren adhla
after the song

i linnar -en   adh -la  .
         :DAT      :TEMP.
The song       after    .

12.1.4 associative postpositions

Associative postpositions express an association to or relationship with the head noun. The head noun of a postpositional phrase using an associative postposition must take the dative case.

iluvatarren anîe
for Iluvatar

iluvatar -en  an -ie   .
         :DAT    :ASSOC.
Iluvatar      for      .

12.1.5 instrumental postpositions

Instrumental postpositions, like directionals are rarely used except to emphasize the instrumental relationship. The head noun of a postpositional phrase using an instrumental postposition must take the instrumental case.

megillos nama
with a sword
(as opposed to with a club)

megil -os    na -ma   .
      :INSTR    :INSTR.
sword with   with     .