Adjective Morphology

The Pages of The Gray Wizard



10.0 adjective morphology (bethfennar inaglarveth)

Adjectives in ámman îar take the form of lexically distinct noun phrase modifiers, nonnumeric quantifiers and numeric quantifiers.

10.0 Adjective Morphology
        10.1 Adjective Classes
                10.1.1 Descriptives
                10.1.2 Purposives
                10.1.3 Scalars
                10.1.4 Cardinals
                10.1.5 Inceptives
                10.1.6 Substantials
                10.1.7 Formatives
        10.2 Adjective Distribution
                10.2.1 Attributive Adjectives
                10.2.2 Predicate Adjectives
               Semantic Aspectuals
        10.4 Adjective Phrases
        10.5 Adjective Degree
                 10.5.1 Positive
                 10.5.2 Equative
                 10.5.3 Comparative
                 10.5.4 Superlative
         10.5 Non-numeric Quantifiers
         10.6 Numeric Quantifiers

10.1 adjective classes

Adjectives are identified with an adjectival prefix that defines the semantics of the relationship with the nouns that they modify.

class prefix semantics example
descriptive ve- describes what the noun is like. riel vemarlis
beautiful woman
purposive pa- describes what the noun is used for tornil pamurmlir
sleeping bag
material ge- describes what the noun is made from teleg galdar
wooden leg
size ma-- describes how big or small the noun is. caras mabeleg
large house
color de- describes the color of the noun curunar demith
gray wizard
shape ta- describes the shape of the noun palag tacom
round table
count be- describes how many of the noun lhibai becaer
ten fingers
age la- describes how old the noun is cair lorseinnon
ancient ship
origin ha- decribes where something comes from sinair harhun
eastern manners

10.1.1 descriptive adjectives

i rîel vemarlis
The beautiful woman

i   riel  ve-   marlis.
          DESC:       .
The woman like  beauty.

10.1.2 purposive adjectives

asaldril parist
cutting board

asaldril pa-  rist   .
         PURP:       .
board    for  cutting.

10.1.3 size adjectives

i risthel mabeleg
The large knife

i   risthel ma-  beleg.
            SIZE:     .
The knife   size large.

10.1.4 color adjectives

i gair demor
The black ship

i   gair de-     mor  .
         COLOR:       .
The ship colored black.

10.1.5 age adjectives

i sirdhar lorsëirron
The ancient river

i   sirdhar la- orseirron.
            AGE:         .
The river   age ancient  .

10.1.6 count adjectives

in sildain bebeleg
The many boys

in  sildain be-    beleg.
            COUNT:      .
The boys    count  many .

10.1.7 origin adjectives

i fadh haforod
The north wind

i   fadh ha-  forod.
         ORG:      .
The wind from north.

10.1.8 material adjectives

ir antharon galdar
The wooden pole

ir  antharon ge-     aldar.
             MAT:         .
The pole     made of wood .

  NOTE: galdar < ge-aldar literally means "made of tree", but has been lexicalized as the adjective "of wood" or "wooden".


10.1.9 shape adjectives

i garil tacom
The round hat

i   garil ta-    com  .
          SHAPE:      .
The hat   shaped round.

10.2 adjective distribution

As in English, adjectives may be attributive adjectives, i.e. those that directly modify the noun or predicate adjectives, i.e. those that form a predicate construction.

10.2.1 attributive adjectives

Attributive Adjectives follow the noun that they modify.

i gurunaran demith
The Gray Wizard

i   gurunaran de- mith.
              ADJ     .
The wizard    gray    .

10.2.2 predicate adjectives

Predicate Adjectives also follow the noun, but the adjectival prefix detaches from the adjective and is placed at the end of the adjective phrase. In this position, the adjectival particle takes auxiliary verb inflections. tense/aspect

gurunaran mith das
The wizard is gray.

i   gurunaran mith de-     -0   -as  .
                   AP:     :DEF :PRES.
the wizard    gray colored is        . semantic aspectuals

i vastmëar arun vecorîeth
The soup is hot.
(it is hot relative to some norm)

i   vastmear arun ve-  -cor -i    -eth .
                  AP:  :REL :PERF :PAST.
the soup     hot  like  is             . mood

vastmëar arun varîeth
The soup may be hot.
(it is possible that it is hot)

i   vastmear arun ve-  ar-   -i    -eth .
                  AP:  SPEC: :PERF :PAST.
the soup     hot  like may   be         . polarity

i gurunaran mith udas
The wizard is not gray.

i   gurunaran mith  u-   de-     -as  .
                    NEG: AP:     :PRES.
the wizard    gray  not  colored is   .

10.3 adjective phrases

Although NPs containing multiple adjectives are rare in the spoken language, they can be formed using conjoined adjectives, thus:

i gurlavan debaran
The brown fox

i gurlavan velim
The quick fox

i gurlavan debaran na lim vas 
The quick, brown fox
(lit. the brown fox is quick)

i gurlavan debaran na velim na orneth las
The old, quick, brown fox
(lit. the brown and quick fox is old)

Note: an alternative form of the second example has been attested in some dialects, i.e.

i gurlavan debaran na velim
the quick, brown fox
(lit the brown and quick fox)

This form, however, is always limited to two adjective modifiers and one would never hear an alternate of the third example above. i.e.

*i gurlavan debaran na velim na lorneth
the old, quick, brown fox
(lit. the brown and quick and old fox)

10.4 adjective degree

Adjective degree is specified using a degree particle that follows the adjective.

degree particle
positive -
equative amos
comparative amol
superlative amon

10.4.1 positive

eni galdránne caril mabeleg cummilarth
Galdor wore a big hat.

(elieth) eni galdranne caril 0   mabeleg cummilarth.
did          Galdor    hat   POS big     wear      .

10.4.2 equative

The equative is formed by following the adjective with the degree particle amos. The adjective may in turn be preceded by the standard of comparison, which is expressed in the genitive case.

enir ægnoranne caril galdrannîon mabeleg amos cummilarth
ægnoran wore a hat as big as Galdor"s (hat)

(elieth) enir ægnoranne caril galdran -ion mabeleg amos cumilarth.
                                      :GEN         EQU           .
did           ægnor     hat   Galdor  "s   big     as   wear     .

10.4.3 comparative

The comparative is formed by following the adjective with the degree particle amol. The adjective may in turn be preceded by the standard of comparison, which is expressed in the genitive case.

enir ægnoranne caril galdrannîon mabeleg amol cummilarth
ægnoran wore a bigger hat than Galdor

(elieth) eni ægnoranne caril galdran -ion mabeleg amol     cumilarth.
                                     :GEN         COMP              .
did          ægnor     hat   Galdor  "s   big     -er than wear     .

10.4.4 superlative

The superlative is formed by following the adjective with the degree particle amon. The resulting phrase is pronounced as one word with the accent on amon.

eni luthîelle caril mabeleg amon cummilarth
Luthiel wore the biggest hat

(elieth) eni luthielle caril mabeleg amon  cummilarth.
                                     SUPER           .
did          Luthiel   hat   big     -est  wear      .

10.5 non-numeric quantifiers

Non-numeric quantifiers include the following:

type quantifier
much,many dæra
few orvelga
some risa
a lot of shumra
all oma
other varvina
both ompedla
none oroma
several tanda
more olta
most ûaina

10.6 numeric quantifiers