Oblique Cases

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Oblique Cases

Core Cases
Oblique Cases
Locative Cases

3.2.2 oblique cases

Oblique case nouns take adverbial position, i.e. between the lexical verb and the auxiliary.

aldar, tree
oblique cases inflection singular plural semantics
dative -on aldarron eldairron tree(s) [IO]
instrumental -os aldarros eldairros with tree(s)]
genitive -îon aldarrîon eldairrîon of a tree(s)
abessive -ul aldarrul eldairrul without tree(s) dative

The dative case is used for indirect objects, other non-locative, and non-instrumental oblique arguments of the verb.

The queen gave a sword to the warrior.
ir arielle eleth an ir authnar megillon erannaen
(arlair ne osnair no megla anth)
ir  arnarielle              eleth             en         ir 
i   arro =nar     =iel -e   el-        -eth   en         i  
the rule =one.who =fem -[A] assertive- -past  agt.to.pat the
det v    =agtv    =gnd -erg mood-      -tense ptp        det
the queen                   did               agt.to.pat the

authnar                megillon     erannaen                     
autho    =nar     -0   megil -on    er-  anno -ae      -n        
make.war =one.who -[P] sword -[Obl] do-  give -agt/pat -actn/proc
v        =agtv    -abs n     -dat   agt- v    -val     -vc       
warrior                sword        give                  instrumental

The instrumental case marks the object as the instrument with which the action of the verb is carried out.

I killed the tiger with a bow.
eleth en i dais cuios ernurgoraen
(ne taisir cuini en nogodh)
(ner)     eleth             en         i   dais       cuios     
ner  -0   el-        -eth   en         i   tais  -0   cui -os   
I    -[A] assertive- -past  agt.to.pat the tiger -[P] bow -with 
1per -nom mood-      -tense ptp        det n     -abs n   -instr
I         did               agt.to.pat the tiger      with.bow  

er-  en-    ur-  coiro -ae      -n        
do-  cause- not- live  -agt/pat -actn/proc
agt- caus-  neg- v     -val     -vc       


The nardhoth rarely express the 1st person pronoun in A- or S-function as it is considered immodest to do so. Context and the absence of a required argument of the predicate indicate an unexpressed first person argument. genitive

The Genitive case marks an associative relation.

The king's land
i dhor arnarannion
(dorir arrao)
i   dhor arnarannion             
i   dor  arro =nar     =an   -ion
the land rule =one.who =masc -of 
det n    v    =agtv    =gnd  -gen
the land of king          abessive

The Abessive case marks the absence of the referent noun.

The land without trees.
i dhor eldairrul
(dorir ul aldrei)
i   dhor eldairrul          
i   dor  aldar -i   -ul     
the land tree  -plu -without
det n    n     -num -abess  
the land without.trees